世上最大有機體與它變禿的未來--中國數字科技館

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          世上最大有機體與它變禿的未來

          世上最大有機體與它變禿的未來(科學60S) 0:00/0:00
          最新發布時間: 2018-12-31   瀏覽數:
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           The single organism that is the Utah aspen grove known as Pando is on the decline due to herbivores wiping out its youngest tree outgrowths

          位于猶他州的白楊樹林,又叫Pando的單一有機體系,由于食草動物席卷了向外擴張生長的新生小樹,Pando正在逐漸退化

           

          撰文\播音:安妮?斯尼德(Annie Sneed

          翻譯:陳美娟

          審校:許楠

           

          It lives in south-central Utah. And it’s huge. In fact, it is thought to be the largest living thing on the planet. It’s a stand of trees, a field of aspens all clones and all connected at the roots. Called Pando, the grove was first characterized by scientists in the 1970s, and it’s probably existed for many thousands of years. But now a study finds that this this massive, ancient organism is failing.

          它生活在猶他州的南部中心地帶。它體型龐大。實際上,它被認為是世界上最大的生命體。它是一片樹林,整片的無性繁殖的白楊樹通過根部連在一起。Pando20世紀70年代科學家首次發現了這片樹林的特點,它可能已經存活了幾千年了。但現在研究發現,這種巨大的古老的有機體正在消亡。

          “More than 80 percent of the entire Pando clone is in a nonsustainable state that has the potential to collapse and significantly reduce the size of this world’s largest organism in the next 10 to 20 years.” Paul Rogers, director of the Western Aspen Alliance at Utah State University.

          Pando,超過80%的克隆樹處于一種不可持續的狀態中,這表明世界上最大的有機體在1020年之內有明顯萎縮或者崩塌掉的可能。猶他州立大學西部山楊林聯盟的主席保羅·羅杰斯(Paul Rogers)如是說

          The cause of this crisis? Herbivores, mostly deer. Parts of Pando are fenced off, but that section is still under attack. “Young aspen trees are so nutritious that animals really want to get them, particularly late in the year when the rest of the forest plants are senest and dried up..., I think that there’s perhaps some very healthy [animals that] are able to jump over the eight-foot fence.”

          至于造成危機的原因?這要怪食草動物,尤其是鹿。Pando的部分區域已經用柵欄攔住了,但這些區域仍然收到了襲擊。幼年的白楊樹富含營養,以至于動物們都想要吃掉它,尤其是在近年,剩余的樹種都變老變干了的情況下……我想可能有些比較健壯的(動物)能夠越過八英尺高的柵欄。

          The deers’ aggressive browsing of young aspen poses a huge threat to Pando. “We see a big gap in the demography. And I often use the human analogy that this is a forest that is almost completely composed of senior citizens, and we have no mature, healthy individuals, we have no middle-aged, we have no teenagers, we have no babies. And that’s a really dangerous situation for aspen because it really depends on continuous growth of the whole clone. You should have a really diverse age and height structure.”

          鹿群對幼年白楊樹的肆虐給Pando造成了嚴重威脅。我們用人口統計學分析看到了一個年齡斷崖。我經常使用人類的類比來說明這是一個幾乎完全由老年人組成的森林系統,這里沒有成年的健康的個體沒有中年沒有青年也沒有嬰兒。這對于白楊樹林來說是個非常危險的境況,因為它完全依賴克隆體不斷的生長。(在一個系統中)應該包含各種年齡和生長階段。

          The problem has largely been created by humans and our game management strategies. Rogers says those strategies need to be reconsidered if we want to protect Pando. And it’s not just about saving the world’s largest organism for its own sake.

          人類活動和對白楊樹林的管理方式也加重了這個問題羅杰斯說,如果我們想要保護Pando的話,需要重新考慮和執行這些管理策略,而不僅僅是保護世界上最大的有機體系本身這么簡單。

          “Aspen here and, in fact, worldwide harbor great amounts of biodiversity…, hundreds of plants and animals that are dependent on aspen ecosystems. In the Western U.S., the lower 48, aspen, second to riparian systems, are the most biodiverse forests that we have. Another term for that is Aspen is a keystone species. So as aspen goes so do all those dependent species. So that’s the number one reason.

          實際上,這里以及全世界的白楊樹林中都蘊藏著豐富的生物多樣性,有很多動植物都依賴于白楊樹林生態系統。在美國西部,美國本土的48個州里,白楊樹林生物多樣性第二多的樹林,僅次于水濱生態系統。換句話說白楊樹是生態系統的關鍵物種。因此白楊樹林的存亡決定所有其它物種的存亡。這是我們要保護白楊樹林首要的原因。

          “Specific to Pando, this closely demarcated 106 acres or 43 hectares is something that’s workable that we can see and feel and look at and people know about or are learning more about. And so…as a conservation symbol it’s like, if we can’t fix this one thing that has this international reputation, what does that say about our greater relationships with the Earth and living compatibly with the planet?”

          具體談到Pando,在這點106英畝或43公頃的被圈起來的地方,我們可以看到感覺到觀察到人們正在了解或學習更多的東西。白楊樹林是保護區的象征,同時其存亡與否聯系到環境保護的國際聲譽,如果我們不能把這個問題解決的話,談什么與地球的更好地聯系,地球和諧相處呢?


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